Italian sentence structure

Post Reply
shadowangel613
Posts: 4
Joined: Sun Sep 24, 2006 7:18 am

Italian sentence structure

Post by shadowangel613 » Sat Oct 14, 2006 9:04 pm

for my homework i need to write two paragraphs. one on my characteristics and one on my personality. problem is she hasn't gone over sentence structure and things like that. all i really know is she wants me to use adjectives, and essere....i think. or was it avere...

User avatar
lockettpots
Posts: 198
Joined: Sun Jan 23, 2005 3:38 pm
Location: Birmingham, England
Contact:

Post by lockettpots » Sat Oct 14, 2006 10:20 pm

Ciao Alicia

I would guess that your teacher just wants you to use a simple construction of subject - verb - adjective for example:-
I am tall
I am beautiful.

Now in italian you do not need to use the subject pronoun 'I'. So a typical sentence for you could be.

I am tall = Sono alta (alta because you are a girl , I'm presuming. if you had been a boy it would have been alto)

So you could produce sentence for
I am beautiful = Sono bella
I am kind = Sono gentile

and so on.

You could also use a subject - verb - noun - adjective construction (in italian adjectives usually follow the noun) using avere (to have).

I have blonde hair = Ho i capelli biondi.
I have a small nose = Ho il naso piccolo

Drop me a private message if you would like more help.

John
Sono ceramista. Potete vedere i miei vasi a
www.lockettpots.co.uk

Roby
Posts: 3850
Joined: Mon Nov 22, 2004 2:06 pm

Re: Italian sentence structure

Post by Roby » Sat Oct 14, 2006 11:04 pm

shadowangel613 wrote:for my homework i need to write two paragraphs. one on my characteristics and one on my personality. problem is she hasn't gone over sentence structure and things like that. all i really know is she wants me to use adjectives, and essere....i think. or was it avere...
Hi Alicia

I believe your teacher would like you to use the verbs ESSERE and AVERE for your homework.


Essere is used to indicate more permanent aspects of people or things, such as -

A.Identity - Io sono Carla. ("I am Carla")
B. Profession - Lui è un professore. ("He is a professor.")
C.Origin - Noi siamo di Milano. ("We are from Milan.")
D.Religious or political affiliation - Tu sei cattolico? ("You are Catholic?")
E.Time of day or date - Sono le otto. ("It is 8 o'clock.")
F.Possession - La casa è di Giovanna. ("It is Giovanna's house.")
G.Nationality - Sono Italiano. ("I am from Italy.")
H.Physical aspects or characteristics of something - Le sedie sono verdi. ("The chairs are green.")
I.Essential qualities of something or someone - Sono vecchio. Sei antipatico. ("I am old. You are unpleasant.")
J.Location - La sedia è in cucina. ("The chair is in the kitchen.")
K.However also, more rarely - La sedia sta in cucina. ("The chair is in the kitchen.")
L.Condition or emotion that is subject to change - Sono malato. ("I am sick.")
M..Personal observations or reactions, how something "seems" or "feels" - La cucina è pulita. ("The kitchen is (seems) clean.")


Here are some examples of sentences you can now make.

Sono di San Francisco.
Tammy è in cucina.
La signorina è carina.
Tu sei antipatico.
La sedia è comoda.
Milano è in Italia.
Il professore vecchio è malato.
Il telefono verde è sporco.
Il bagno è in casa.
La casa di Maria è verde.

Avere is used indicate to have and it is used for express that someone possesses something :

Ho una macchina. (I have a car)
Noi abbiamo un cane. (We have a dog)

Io ho una casa. (I have a house.)
Ho una casa. (I have a house.)

The termination of the verb is enough to indicate which person the verb is related to, even when the person is omitted in a sentence.

Ho ventotto anni. (Literally 'I have twenty eight years' - I am twenty eight years old).

***Note that in Italian you express your age using the verb 'avere', not the verb 'essere' (to be)

Lei ha la fortuna di essere bella. (She is lucky for being beautiful).

Lui ha la fortuna di essere bello. (He is lucky to be handsome).

'Ha' could be used for either he or she, so in order to specify who has is lucky, usually the person should be referred)

Abbiamo una bella casa. (We have a beautiful house)

Loro hanno una macchina. (They have a car)


Avere is used in many idiomatic expressions (espressioni idiomatiche) that indicate people's feelings or convey physical sensations. They are formed with avere + noun. The equivalent English expressions are generally formed with to be + adjective. Here are a few common ones:
avere fame to be hungry
avere sete to be thirsty
avere sonno to be sleepy
avere caldo to be warm (hot)
avere freddo to be cold
avere fretta to be in a hurry
avere paura to be afraid
avere bisogno di to need, have need of
avere voglia di to want, to feel like

Examples w/ Avere

Sara ha sempre fretta.
Sara is always in a hurry.

Ho caldo. Ho voglia di un gelato.
I'm hot. I feel like having ice cream

Hai fame?
Are you hungry?

Ho bisogno di aiuto.
I need help.

Lei ha sonno
She is sleepy


Phrases to describe yourself and your family
http://www.smartphrase.com/Italian/it_y ... _phr.shtml

http://www.smartphrase.com/Italian/it_y ... _voc.shtml


sentence structure links
http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/modla ... NDOUT5.htm

http://www.dummies.com/WileyCDA/Dummies ... -1175.html


I hope that this is helpful.

Roby

shadowangel613
Posts: 4
Joined: Sun Sep 24, 2006 7:18 am

Post by shadowangel613 » Sat Oct 14, 2006 11:21 pm

wow...thanks a bunch. one question though. how do you know when to put the adjective before or after the noun?

Roby
Posts: 3850
Joined: Mon Nov 22, 2004 2:06 pm

Post by Roby » Sun Oct 15, 2006 12:51 am

shadowangel613 wrote:wow...thanks a bunch. one question though. how do you know when to put the adjective before or after the noun?
Taken from Oggi in Italia

Position of Adjectives with Nouns

1. In Italian, most descriptive adjectives follow the
nouns they modify.
Ex: Penso di indossare una toga romana.
I think I'll wear a Roman toga

Ecco un costume semplice.
Now, that's an easy costume.

Che idea geniale!
What a smart idea!

1. Certain common descriptive adjectives such as
bello, buono, nuovo , piccolo, ordinarily precede the
noun the modify. When the follow the noun, it is
usually for emphasis or contrast.
Ex: Abito in una piccola villa fuori Milano.
I live in a small villa outside of Milano.

Comunque, non e' una villa piccola. E' grande.
However, it's not a small villa at all. It's big.
(* shows emphasis)

** Using these adjectives after the noun tend to
emphasize the meaning of the adjective: Una nuova
macchina : means that the car is new to the speaker,
but not necessarily new. Una macchina nuova: means
that the car is brand new.


A list of some common descriptive adjectives that
generally PRECEDE the noun.

Bello/a …nice; beautiful
Bravo/a … good; capable
Brutto/a … ugly; unpleasant
Buono/a … good
Caro/a … dear (* Caro/a before the noun means
"dear." Caro after the noun means "expensive")
Cattivo/a … bad
Giovane … young
Grande … large; great
Lungo/a … long
Nuovo/a … new
Piccolo/a … small
Stesso/a … same
Vecchio/a … old
Vero/a … true



I would say that it is reasonably safe to place the adjective after the noun, like "la casa nera, la felpa blu," but you can say either "una donna bella" or "una bella donna" or, "un grande regalo" or "un regalo grande"
without changing the meaning and without sounding "strange" or "odd" if you are talking to an Italian/ Native Italian Speaker. If you have some doubts, place the adjective after the noun.

Adjectives that can/are used BEFORE THE NOUN. I got this memory device from a friend in another group.
B = Beauty (bella, etc)
A = Age (vecchio, giovane, etc)
G = Goodness (buon, cattiva, etc)
S = Size (grande, piccolo, etc)

Help with Buono, Grande, and Bello
http://impariamo.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=11419#11419

Roby

Pompiere
Posts: 205
Joined: Thu Jul 17, 2008 4:47 am
Location: Garden City, New York

Adjective placement

Post by Pompiere » Fri Oct 17, 2008 3:38 pm

Buon giorno:

Ho appena leggo il suo acronimo per i aggettivi. Mi piace molto B A G S, e' fantastico.

Rich


Adjectives that can/are used BEFORE THE NOUN. I got this memory device from a friend in another group.
B = Beauty (bella, etc)
A = Age (vecchio, giovane, etc)
G = Goodness (buon, cattiva, etc)
S = Size (grande, piccolo, etc)

Post Reply

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 2 guests