The Hypothetical Constructions

Roby
Posts: 3850
Joined: Mon Nov 22, 2004 2:06 pm

The Hypothetical Constructions

Postby Roby » Mon Oct 30, 2006 8:42 pm

http://www.uvm.edu/~cmazzoni/3grammatic ... tical.html

the hypothetical constructions (il periodo ipotetico)
There are three types of hypothesis/consequence situations, in terms of Italian grammar:

1. real (the hypothesis is perfectly possible; often you can exchange "when" for "if"):
use SE + INDICATIVO (presente, futuro, passato prossimo, whatever you need to mean), and the INDICATIVO or IMPERATIVO for the consequence

2. unlikely (an unlikely hypothesis; you cannot substitute "when" for "if"):
use SE + CONGIUNTIVO IMPERFETTO, and the CONDIZIONALE PRESENTE or PASSATO for the consequence

3. no longer possible (a hypothesis in the past, therefore by definition impossible):
use SE+CONGIUNTIVO TRAPASSATO, and the CONDIZIONALE PRESENTE or PASSATO for the consequence.


real:
1.se studi impari
(if you study you learn)
2.se andremo al mare dobbiamo portare il costume
(if we will go to the beach we need to take our bathing suit)
3.se non hai fame non mangiare
(if you are not hungry, do not eat)

unlikely:
1.se fossi più ricca avrei una casa più grande
(if I were richer I would have a bigger house)
2.se avessi molti soldi vi porterei tutti al ristorante
(if I had a lot of money I would take you all to the restaurant)
3.se mangiassimo di meno saremmo più magri
(if we ate less we would be thinner)

no longer possible:
1.se avessi fatto i compiti avresti ricevuto un buon voto
(if you had done your homework you would have received a better grade)
2.se fossi andato a letto più presto adesso non sarei stanco
(if I had gone to bed earlier now I would not be tired)
3.se fossimo nati in Italia ora parleremmo l'italiano perfettamente
(if we had been born in Italy now we would speak perfect Italian)


Roby

Roby
Posts: 3850
Joined: Mon Nov 22, 2004 2:06 pm

Postby Roby » Tue Jun 05, 2007 1:59 pm

http://www.cyberitalian.com/html/gra_ad ... nstruction

Hipothetical construction (conditional clauses)

In Italian there are three forms of conditional clauses:

1) "Realtà" (reality) = expresses an action that will happen or it is very likely to happen. It uses the "Indicativo" or "Imperativo":

Se piove, prendo l'ombrello. (If it rains, I'll get the umbrella)
Se piove, prendi l'ombrello! (If it rains, get the umbrella!)
2) "Possibilità" (possibility) = expresses an action that might happen. It uses the "Congiuntivo imperfetto" and the "Condizionale presente" or "Imperativo":
Se piovesse, prenderei l'ombrello. (If it rained, I would get the umbrella)
Se piovesse, prendi l'ombrello! (In case it rains: get the umbrella!)
3) "Impossibilità o irrealtà" (irreality) = expresses an action that cannot happen or could have happened but did not. Depending on the time the hypothesis refers to, it uses the "Congiuntivo trapassato" and the "Condizionale presente" or "Condizionale passato":
Se avessi avuto l'ombrello l'avrei usato. (If I had had an umbrella, I would have used it.)
Se avessi usato l'ombrello ora non avrei il raffreddore! (If I had used the umbrella now I would not have a cold!)


Roby

Roby
Posts: 3850
Joined: Mon Nov 22, 2004 2:06 pm

Postby Roby » Mon Mar 15, 2010 11:59 am

Discussion on hypothetical construction

http://www.impariamo.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=4043
Roby
"Per raro che sia, il vero amore e' meno raro della vera amicizia."

"As rare as true love is, it is not as rare as true friendship."
- François de La Rochefoucauld


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