I would like to know what are the tenses, that are used while speaking on a daily basis?
Like for example is the present tense used instead of the simple future?
Pretty much all of them. The only tense that I can think of that you will virtually never hear is the past anterior, aka the preterite perfect.
It is, but not always. Correct me if I’m wrong, but I assume you were thinking of German when you asked that question; however, that analogy is flawed. The German present tense, which should be more properly called the “nonpast tense,” is actually the default way of expressing futurity in German, both in speaking and in writing. In fact, German, much like English, doesn’t even have a future tense. Instead, they have modal verbs that express futurity.