L02: ADVERBS OF MANNER

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Peter
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L02: ADVERBS OF MANNER

Post by Peter » Tue May 21, 2013 5:26 pm

L02: ADVERBS OF MANNER
(Avverbi di modo)


Adverbs of manner comprise the largest category of adverbs. More often than not they correspond to English adverbs that end -ly, for example slowly, quickly, loudly, softly. In other words, the suffix –ly is added to the adjective to form the adverb. In Italian such adverbs often, but not always, end –mente.

These adverbs are formed in various ways:

1 Where an adjective ends in –o or -a, for example lento/a (slow), rapido/a (fast, quick), onesto/a (honest), the corresponding adverb takes the feminine gender form of the adjective and ends –mente, for example:

Adjective: (m) - lento - (f) lenta - (slow); Adverb: lentamente - (slowly)
Adjective: (m) - rapido - (f) rapida - (fast, quick); Adverb: rapidamente - (quickly)
Adjective: (m) - onesto - (f) onesta - (honest); Adverb: onestamente - (honestly)

Examples:

Adjective:
Giulio è un corridore lento
Giulio is a slow runner

Adverb:
Giulio corre lentamente
Giulio runs slowly

Adjective:
I servizi di emergenza dovevano effettuare un rapido salvataggio dei feriti
The emergency services had to undertake a rapid rescue of the injured

Adverb:
I servizi di emergenza dovevano muoversi rapidamente per salvare i feriti
The emergency services had to move rapidly to rescue the injured

Adjective:
Marcello è un uomo onesto
Marcello is an honest man

Adverb:
Marcello parla sempre onestamente
Marcello always speaks honestly

As with many things in Italian grammar, there are exceptions to the above rule. Examples include:

Adjective: violento - (violent); Adverb: violentemente - (violently)
Adjective: fraudolento - (fraudulent); Adverb: fraudolentemente - (fraudulently)
Adjective: benevolo - (benevolent); Adverb: benevolmente -(benevolently)
Adjective: malevolo - (malevolent); Adverb: malevolmente - (malevolently)
Adjective: leggero - (light); Adverb: leggermente - (lightly)

Examples:

Adjective:
Marco è incline a violente esplosioni di collera
Marco is prone to violent outbursts of temper

Adverb:
Ogni tanto Marco si comporta violentemente
Every now and again Marco behaves violently

Adjective:
Sandro è divenuto ricco attraverso l’uso di mezzi fraudolenti
Sandro became rich through using fraudulent means

Adverb:
Sandro è divenuto ricco fraudolentemente
Sandro became rich fraudulently

Adjective:
Tutto quello che fece zio Tonino fu di regalarci un sorriso benevolo
All Uncle Tony did was to give us a benevolent smile

Adverb:
Tutto quello che fece zio Tonino fu di sorriderci benevolmente
All Uncle Tony did was to smile benevolently at us

Adjective:
Giorgio mi ha guardato con un’espressione malevola
Giorgio looked at me with a malevolent expression

Adverb:
Giorgio mi ha guardato malevolmente
Giogio looked at me malevolently

Adjective:
C’era un vento leggero quando sono uscito di casa
There was a light wind as I left the house

Adverb:
Il vento soffiava leggermente quando sono uscito di casa
The wind was blowing lightly as I left the house


2 Where the adjective ends –e (but not –le or –re: see 3 below), -mente is simply added to the adjective to form the adverb, for example:

Adjective: semplice - (simple); Adverb: semplicemente - (simply)
Adjective: dolce - (sweet); Adverb: dolcemente - (sweetly)
Adjective: cortese - (polite); Adverb: cortesemente - (politely)

Examples:

Adjective:
È stato un semplice malinteso
It was a simple misunderstanding

Adverb:
Carlo ha semplicemente frainteso la situazione
Carlo simply misunderstood the situation

Adjective:
Carla ha un sorriso tanto dolce!
Carla has such a sweet smile!

Adverb:
Carla sorride così dolcemente
Carla smiles so sweetly

Adjective:
Giorgio tratta la gente sempre in maniera cortese
Giorgio always treats people in a polite way

Adverb:
Giorgio tratta la gente sempre cortesemente
Giorgio always treats people politely

3 Where the adjective ends in –le or –re and is preceded by a vowel, the ending is dropped and is replaced with –mente, for example:

Adjective: facile - (easy); Adverb: facilmente - (easily)
Adjective: probabile - (probable); Adverb: probabilmente - (probably)
Adjective: possibile - (possible); Adverb: possibilmente - (possibly)

Examples:

Adjective:
Pietro ha trovato il compito molto facile da svolgere
Peter found the homework very easy to do

Adverb:
Pietro ha svolto molto facilmente il compito
Peter did the homework very easily

Adjective:
La causa probabile dell’incidente fu un errore dell’autista
The probable cause of the accident was driver error

Adverb:
L’incidente fu probabilmente causato da un errore dell’autista
The accident was probably caused by driver error

Adjective:
È l’unica spiegazione possibile dell’incidente
It is the only possible explanation for the accident

Adverb:
È forse l’unica spiegazione dell’incidente
It is possibly (perhaps) the only explanation for the accident

In the above example, forse is used to mean possibly, since in Italian possibilmente would not be used.

4 Where the adjective ends in –le or –re and is preceded by another consonant, then the formation of the adverb follows the same rule as explained in 2 above, for example:

Adjective: mediocre - (poor,weak); Adverb: mediocremente - (poorly, weakly)
Adjective: folle - (mad, crazy); Adverb: follemente - (madly, crazily)

Note that there are other ways of translating English adverbs that end –ly other than using –mente. One such alternative is the use of adverbial phrases using prepositions such as con (with), senza (without), in (in), a (to, of). This is explained more fully in the Lesson entitled Adverbial Phrases.

There are also a few irregular adverbs of manner, which we look at in a separate Lesson.

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