L01: INTRODUCTION TO ADVERBS
(Un’introduzione agli avverbi)
The purpose of an adverb is to modify a verb just as an adjective modifies a noun. However, unlike adjectives, adverbs are invariable, ie they are not dependent on gender and number. There are many types of adverbs, and the following Notes seek to cover most of them. This Note lists the various types of adverbs; subsequent Notes provide more information regarding each type of adverb.
1 Adverbs of manner
(Avverbi di modo)
In English, these adverbs generally end -ly, for example slowly, quickly, loudly, softly. In Italian such adverbs normally end –mente. We also show where in a sentence they should appear.
2 Irregular adverbs of manner
(Avverbi irregolari di modo)
This Lesson looks at adverbs such as well, badly, better, that in Italian do not follow the normal rules
3 Adverbial phrases
You will find sometimes that, instead of using an adverb ending –mente, Italians use what is known as an adverbial phrase. Such phrases use a preposition such as con, senza, in. For example, strongly can be translated as con forza, literally with strength.
4 Adverbs of time
(Avverbi di tempo)
Here we cover expressions such as always, never, sometimes and yesterday, today, tomorrow. The first three are indefinite adverbs because they do not refer to a specific point in time; the last three are definite adverbs since they do refer to specific points in time.
5 Adverbs of place
(Avverbi di luogo)
This Lesson covers such adverbs as here, there, above, inside, outside etc. We take a look at these and provide examples of how they can be used.
6 Unstressed adverbs of place
(Avverbi di luogo atoni)
This Lesson covers what are known as unstressed adverbs of place; examples include there is, there are, and from here, from there.
7 Adjectives of quantity used as adverbs
(Aggettivi di quantità usati come avverbi)
This Lesson deals with adjectives such as molto, tanto, poco, quanto, tutto, troppo, that are also used as adverbs and we explain how they are treated differently. We include examples of how they are used both as adjectives and adverbs.
8 The comparative and superlative forms of adverbs of manner
(Forme comparative e superlative degli avverbi di modo)
We use comparative and superlative forms of adverbs of manner to quantify an adjective or another adverb, either to strengthen or diminish the meaning, for example, very slowly, quite slowly, a little slowly. Because this can be quite complex, the Lesson is divided into two.
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